Why study tigers in the Sundarbans? Why not put all our resources and efforts into protection? Surely we know enough about tigers by now to know how to help save them! Why are you trying to catch and collar tigers? Isn’t that a dangerous undertaking that endangers a tigers life?

These are important questions that deserve careful thought and response. Imagine if you are trying to manage an animal and its environment but you don’t know:

  •  how many animals you have
  •  what resources they need to survive
  •  how their habitat is changing, or
  •  what threats they are facing

The tigers of Bangladesh present such a conundrum. Studies from other countries such as Nepal, Russia, and India has told us a lot about some general life history characteristics and behavior that can probably be applied to all tigers, but we simply don’t know the first thing about the current Sundarbans tiger population or how current management strategies are affecting it.

There have been several valiant attempts to gain understanding of how tigers living in the Sundarbans survive, but the thick vegetation, large tidal fluctuations and a maze of waterways has hampered these efforts. The only way to really get to know how tigers exist in a particular habitat type is to follow those tigers using telemetry. This will give information on how much area they need, and what particular parts of the forest are essential for its well being. A female’s territory, for example, is directly related to the quality of the habitat, measured in abundance of prey. A female tiger needs to defend enough food for both itself and its young to live off. Defending to much will decrease its chances of survival (through increased competition from other tigers), as will defending too little (through starvation). Getting information on the home range size of female tigers in a particular setting will give a good estimate of the breeding population size. This can be used to calculate how the population will change to various pressures and will allow formulation of monitoring schemes that can quantify the effectiveness of management activities. Knowing about the population in isolation is not enough. We also need to know how the tigers use its environment, i.e. are their factors essential for their survival that also need to be managed and protected. Relating locational data from the radio/GPS collars will identify which factors are important. In addition, following tigers on a daily basis will give a huge amount of behavioral information that will help understand such issues as man-eating.

Not less importantly, a research program also helps tiger conservation indirectly by two different means. Firstly, a field level team provides ground level “eyes” in the forest that provide feedback to administrative policy makers, and act as a deterrent to human activities that would otherwise threaten the tigers or their habitat. Secondly, the information gained can be used to dramatically increase support for conservation by if it is made available to all levels of society, from government bodies and local communities to schools, universities and the general public.

There is certainly a small but very real risk to individual tigers that are captured for study. However, there is an even greater risk to the tiger population as a whole by sitting back and doing nothing. Look at other tiger countries and see where the most effective conservation has been carried out. You will soon find a clear pattern of well managed tiger populations connected to long-term scientific research programs.

Examples of tiger related research projects




Tiger abundance

Habitat selection

Prey selection

Movement patters

Response to human presence

6 Females need to be collared

Tigers followed on daily basis to
identify prey types and kill frequency




Social organization

Males & Females collared &
followed throughout their life
MAN-EATING Occurrence



Ecological factors

Record ecological conditions that pre-dispose a tiger to become a man-eater

Collar tigers in areas that consistently produce man-eaters

Collar problem tigers


Vegetation cover


Human use

Remote sensing and ground surveys to record and monitor ecological variables that effect tiger abundance and distribution


Update on findings from research conducted

The findings of the FD tiger abundance survey completed in 2007 have now been published in the journal of Biological Conservation. Now that we have a strong monitoring program we will be able to track changes in the tiger population over time so that we can measure if our conservation efforts are having an effect; if we are doing a good job then tiger numbers will remain stable or increase, if we are not being effective then the population will decline and the survey will help us identify problem areas where we need to put in more effort. The survey is planned to take place every two years. The abstract of the paper can be found at:- user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view;=c&_version=1&_urlVersion =0&_userid=10&md5;=ad547d6cf4b8d0a2cf34c81c209ed2ab

The findings from other research undertaken including home range, man-eating, prey abundance, and palaeontology are currently being analysed and written up. These will be made available as soon as this is complete.

Other workstreams required for a successful conservation program

The project was initially research focused – there was very little information on the tigers of the Bangladeshi Sundarbans and it is hard to gain the political and funding support for a full scale tiger conservation without such information. Now from the research base, the project is evolving rapidly to also encompass capacity building and conservation awareness activities. This will help ensure that the issues illuminated by research are mitigated via conservation action on the ground.


Capacity building Improve basic ecological understanding, data collection skills and general motivation of Forest Department staff working in the Sundarbans; this is being done through field training, workshops, presentations and the development of a field handbook and a short documentary film.
Enable the forest department to carry out scientific research and monitoring of tigers; this is being enables through the experience gained through the day to day activities of the research team
Enable the Forest Department to deal with problem tigers; this is being don through the creation of a problem tiger response team and a communications network throughout the human settlements bordering the Sundarbans.


Increasing conservation awareness GENERAL PUBLIC: through this web site, newspape articles, TV reports, books, films
TOURISTS: through presentations, literature and hopefully in the future a visitors center
SCHOOLS & UNIVERSITIES: through field trips, work opportunities, presentations and the production of educational materials
LOCAL COMMUNITIES: through presentations and free educational material

Problem Tiger Response Team

According to official records, there are approximately 15-50 people killed by tigers every year. The actual number is realistically double that, since people who die later from their injuries, or people who were working in the forest without a permit go unrecorded. Tigers are then sometimes killed in retaliation by the local people. This unnecessary human hardship and animosity towards tigers impedes conservation efforts. To try to alleviate this problem, the Forest Department has started to form Problem Tiger Response Teams (PTRT).

A Problem Tiger Response Team is made up of STP and Forest Department staff trained (or being trained) to deal with situations where tigers are threatening human lives. Stickers advertising a “Tiger Hotline” are posted throughout all the villages and Forest Department patrol posts in and around the Sundarbans. If a tiger wanders into a village or kills someone then people at the scene can call for advise. Whenever necessary, the PTRT will go immediately to the area in question to help.

There is no set strategy for the team responding to a call; every situation will be different and therefore require adaptive solutions to keep both people and tigers safe. The number one priority will always be to minimize the possibility of human injury or deaths. In this regard, much of the PTRT’s efforts will be simply in keeping tiger and humans apart. Further actions will be dictated by the behavior of the tiger, and the immediate level of threat to human life.


The funding for the initial research program was provided by Save the Tiger Fund and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.
Funding for the Tiger Response Team for 2006-7 was provided by the Disney Wildlife Conservation Fund.
The USFWS have been a tremendous help to the project and recently awarded a grant to continue with activities such as: training forest department staff, tiger and prey monitoring to ensure that levels can be monitored to warn management of any sudden drops that require their attention, the development of a local and national awareness and education programme.
Logistical support, facilities, equipment and human resources are provided by the Forest Department of Bangladesh.

The project needs much more funding if it is going to make a real difference to tiger conservation.

Of particular urgency is funding for the Problem Tiger Response Team for January 2009. This boat-based team act as an ambulance in the forest to help tiger attack victims with emergency first aid and transport to nearest medical help.

Please get in touch with Christina Greenwood on to find out which or our other iniatives require support, and with any ither queries and or suggestions relating to funding.